Thursday, 23 July 2015 15:06

9 Common Myths About 12-Hour Shifts

MYTH #1 - Converting to a 12-hour schedule will decrease the number of workers needed to staff the company.

FACT: The operation will still operate for the same number of hours per week and workers will still be working those hours – even though the number of hours may fluctuate week to week. This is why staffing levels typically remain unchanged when converting from 8- to 12-hour shifts.

If anything, more people may be required to run a 12-hour shift system than 8-hour shifts. Why? Because of absenteeism and overtime coverage.

When utilizing 8-hour shifts, management can provide labor coverage by asking workers to come in early or using holdovers. However, these strategies aren’t feasible with 12-hour shifts due to safety concerns, compliance and labor laws.

MYTH #2 - Any 12-hour schedule is better than the best 8-hour schedule.

FACT: Shiftworkers who are enthusiastic about the increased days off that come with 12-hour schedules may assert that changing to a 12-hour schedule will comprehensively solve all of the problems facing management and the workforce. While 12-hour shifts are becoming increasingly popular among 24/7 operations, a number of disadvantages are associated with 12-hour shifts.

Occasionally, we find that a management team has implemented a 12-hour schedule with the goal of providing workers with a schedule that provides more days and weekends off. Unfortunately, forcing any type of schedule onto workers without creating the necessary buy-in can backfire on management – ultimately resulting in a host of unexpected workforce challenges.

Many 12-hour schedules that have some excellent benefits over 8-hour schedules, however, some 12-hour schedules are physiologically demanding and socially disruptive. The only way to determine if a 12-hour schedule will be accepted is by communicating and interacting with workers at each plant site.

MYTH #3 - There are more practical 8-hour schedules than 12-hour schedules.

FACT: Even though 8-hour schedules are the most common and most widely used, there are actually many more practical 12-hour schedules available than 8-hour schedules. The simple mathematical combinations of 12-hour schedules allow for about 120 types of core 12-hour schedules, while there are approximately 40 types of core 8-hour schedules.

This does not mean that 12-hour schedules are necessarily always better than 8-hour schedules, but simply that there are more ways to design 12-hour schedules due to their flexible nature.

MYTH #4 - Shiftworkers will lose money by going to a 12-hour schedule.

FACT: Economic analysis will usually show that going from an 8-hour to a 12-hour shift schedule will increase wages by about 2%. This extra 2% arises from the fact that workers will typically work half of their weeks with 52 pay hours (i.e., 40 hours straight time and 8 hours at time and a half) and the other half of their weeks with 36 hours of straight time.

However, if cost neutrality is predetermined during the schedule design process, the actual increase in pay can be eliminated.

It’s important to determine how overtime will be handled when transitioning to 12-hour shifts. In some agreements between a company and the local union(s), overtime is paid for any work over 8 hours in a given day. This is not a federal law, but an agreement between the union and management.

We have found that this can be waived if the shiftworkers’ desire for 12-hour shifts is strong enough that they are willing to agree to cost neutrality. Federal law requires that overtime must only be paid on hours greater than 40 hours in the specified work week.

Note: Some states have different requirements related to overtime and 12-hour shifts. Make sure you understand the laws that effect overtime in your state.

MYTH #5 - Performance decreases on 12-hour shifts.

FACT: Validated and widely accepted research has shown just the opposite of this with a biocompatible schedule design. Performance may actually increase on 12-hour shifts when compared to 8-hour shifts.

Performance typically parallels alertness, which is strongly affected by one’s individual circadian peaks and troughs. Alertness fluctuates based on: (1) time of day, (2) amount of quality sleep that the individual has obtained, and (3) hours of sustained wakefulness. With proper training on managing a shiftwork lifestyle, workers can recognize and mitigate performance decrements across a shift. Management can also strategically plan shift start and end times to reduce risks and performance deficits related to circadian rhythmicity.

Also, the extra days off that are an integral part of most 12-hour schedules allow for more recuperative time between shifts. This extra rest time allows workers the time needed to fully recover from any sleep deprivation and come back for the next work days feeling better rested and able to perform to the best of his or her abilities.

Another feature of 12-hour shifts that can increase performance levels is the reduced number of shift turnovers. Performance often tends to decrease and errors tend to occur around shift change times. Twelve-hour schedules, with only two shift changes per day, cut this turnover risk by one-third.

In addition, 12-hour shifts allow more time to complete lengthy tasks, especially if a significant amount of preparation time is required before the work can begin.

MYTH #6 - Any worker can get used to a 12-hour shift schedule if he or she truly makes an effort.

FACT: Most workers can easily adapt to 12-hour shift schedules. However, for some workers, the 12-hour shift can be extremely difficult. Older workers occasionally find the length noticeably fatiguing and can have a difficult time recuperating from them, especially when working several consecutive days.

Single parents working 12-hour shifts can also struggle to find quality child care – especially when working night shifts.

Another factor that can make 12-hour shifts difficult is the type of work being done. In jobs with heavy lifting or physically challenging work, 12-hour shifts can be excessively fatiguing even with the extra recuperation days. Break schedules can make the difference in how easily the adjustment to 12-hour shifts is made. Consequently, it’s sometimes necessary to provide extra time for breaks when working 12-hour shifts.

MYTH #7 - Managers prefer 12-hour schedules.

FACT: Although 12-hour shifts are growing in popularity among 24/7 operations, not all managers prefer them. There are several implementation issues that require extra effort on the part of management when transitioning from an 8- to a 12-hour schedule.

For example, pay scales and compensation must be reviewed to insure cost neutrality. In essence, it’s much easier for managers to keep the facility on an 8-hour schedule rather than delve into the multitude of issues that must be resolved when changing from an 8-hour schedule to a 12-hour schedule.

Another factor that deters managers from preferring 12-hour schedules are the barriers to communication that these schedule present.

Communication between managers and workers can become more difficult on 12-hour schedules when compared to 8-hour schedules. A greater amount of flexibility is necessary on the part of managers to insure proper communication. This can mean having to schedule meetings and other functions at hours inconvenient for managers in order to accommodate 12-hour shiftworkers.

Want to learn more about managing 24/7 operations?

Download the free CIRCADIAN white paper, “The Advantages & Disadvantages of 12-Hour Shifts”.

 

Advant Disadvant 12hrshft thumb lores

The Advantages & Disadvantages of 12-Hour Shifts.

A Balanced Perspective.

Twelve-hour shifts are still one of the most frequently debated topics in shift work management. Managers, shiftworkers, union representatives, federal regulators, corporate policy-makers, and academic experts continue to question and debate how 12-hour shifts compare to 8-hour shifts.

• What is the impact on performance
productivity and quality?

• What effects do they have on shift worker
alertness, health and family life?

• Do they cause problems for management or
shift workers?

About CIRCADIAN®

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock. Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations in the 24-hour economy optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of their extended hours operations.

 

Many employers provide work breaks to employees, whether paid or unpaid; however, this common practice isn’t federally mandated – with the exception of required breaks for nursing mothers. Fewer than half of the states require employers to provide a meal break, and the specifications of these required breaks vary by state.

Often times, workers on 8-hour shifts are allotted two, 10-15 minute breaks, along with a 30-minute meal break, and those on 12-hour shifts are allotted three short breaks and a longer meal break.

While this is a common practice, it’s not necessarily the best practice for every operation. When on the night shift, for instance, shortening meal breaks while increasing the number of short breaks can increase the effectiveness of breaks.

In operations that allow for workers to easily cover for one another, workers should be encouraged to take a 10-15 minute break after roughly two hours of continuous work. This can mean as many as four breaks on an 8-hour schedule and five breaks on a 12-hour schedule (including the shortened meal break).

Frequent, short breaks allow workers enough time to leave their work stations for a quick walk or to eat a snack, which in turn can reduce fatigue and/or boredom while on duty.

The short-break strategy offers several advantages over the traditional model – not just in terms of employee morale and productivity, but safety as well.

Safety Implications of Short Breaks

In one study examining the impact of breaks on the risk of workplace injuries, workers in an engineering plant were each given a 15-minute break following two hours of continuous work.

For analytical purposes, the two hour work period was segmented into four, 30-minute periods; the number of injuries within each of these periods was calculated, and the risk in each 30-minute period was expressed relative to the first 30-minute period immediately following the break.1

As depicted in Figure 1, relative injury risk rose substantially and linearly between successive work breaks, with the relative risk more than doubling by the final 30-minute period before the next break.

Figure 1. Trend in Relative Risk between 15-Minute Breaks1
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Interestingly, this trend didn’t differ between the day and night shifts, or for the three successive 2-hour periods of continuous work within each shift. It’s important to note, however, that the relative injury risk is collectively higher on the night shift than on the day shift.

Frequent, short breaks can clearly be a win-win solution for both workers and management that reduces fatigue, while simultaneously improving morale and safety.

REFERENCES

  1. Tucker, P., Folkard, S., & Macdonald, I. (2003). Rest breaks and accident risk. The Lancet, 361(9358), 680.

 

Friday, 06 February 2015 16:33

Shift Schedule Optimization: Case Study

Background – The Challenges

oil refinery shift scheduling

A large oil refinery was using a fatiguing and outdated 8-hour shift schedule that was disliked by workers. Many shift workers were lobbying for a schedule change that would optimize weekend time off. Further, there was much discussion about the benefits and disadvantages of 12-hour versus 8-hour shifts.

Internal surveys indicated that a slight majority of workers preferred 12-hour shift schedules; however, a large discrepancy in schedule preference existed between younger and older workers. The younger workers unanimously preferred a 12-hour shift schedule, while the majority of older workers preferred to keep the 8-hour schedule.

Management faced operational challenges due the discrepancies in shift schedule preferences. How was the refinery going to attract new employees in a tight labor market when the current shift schedule was looked upon unfavorably by young, prospective candidates? How would management prevent problems with relief coverage, training, and communication if they switched to 12-hour shifts?

Efforts were made to develop a different schedule; however, management was unable to reach consensus in the union environment of the oil refinery.

The CIRCADIAN Approach

CIRCADIAN experts were contracted by the refinery to facilitate an alternative work schedule selection and implementation process. CIRCADIAN’s approach, formally known as the Shift Scheduling Optimization Process (SSOP), is designed to produce win-win scenarios for both management and workers.

CIRCADIAN began its win-win process by forming a task force, comprised of managers, shift workers, and union members. CIRCADIAN worked with the task team to analyze the current schedule and prior change initiatives at the refinery. The task force became a communication channel for ensuring that all management and workforce issues were addressed throughout the SSOP. Workers were regularly briefed throughout the schedule optimization process and given the opportunity to provide input to the task team.

Given the refinery’s history of controversy over 12-hour shifts, CIRCADIAN initiated a series of educational sessions to provide workers with factual information on the pros and cons of 8- versus 12-hour shifts. Refinery workers were then individually surveyed to determine their lifestyle and personal preferences relative to shift scheduling features. Once the employee design criteria was determined, CIRCADIAN developed a menu of schedules to meet these preferences, within the parameters established by management.

CIRCADIAN then provided refinery workers with an objective and systematic medium to self-select a preferred schedule option from the optimal schedules identified by CIRCADIAN. By definition, the “optimal” schedules are those that best align with the business needs, the workers’ family/social preferences, and the physiological limitations of workers.

The final step in SSOP was a formal union vote whereby workers were asked to choose between the currently implemented schedule and the preferred option identified in the SSOP.  The preferred option (which turned out to be a long break, 12-hour schedule) was overwhelmingly favored by workers!

Implementation issues such as vacation pay, holiday pay and overtime coverage were then resolved with input from CIRCADIAN, and a side-letter agreement with the union was written to accommodate a 12 month trial period. The change to 12-hour shifts was thus incorporated into the collective agreement during the next contract negotiation period.

CIRCADIAN Results

Following CIRCADIAN’s Shift Scheduling Optimization Process, the newly-implemented, worker-selected schedule resulted in:

  • Substantial increase in workers’ job satisfaction
  • Significant decrease in absenteeism
  • Dramatic improvement in turnover rates

Conclusion

The success of a work schedule in meeting the goals of maximized productivity and safety of the workers and minimized operational costs and risks to the facility will depend greatly on who chooses the work schedule and how they choose it.

Facilities in which employees are consulted during the scheduling process experience better daytime alertness, improved morale, decreased absenteeism and turnover, and increased organizational commitment.1-9

Employee-driven scheduling processes, in which operational requirements, employee preferences, and physiological factors are optimized, represent the best approach to designing and implementing new shift schedules.

Want to learn more about our Shift Schedule Optimization Process?

Connect with a CIRCADIAN expert to discover how our Shift Schedule Optimization Process can optimize your workforce and improve your operation!

Connect with a CIRCADIAN shift scheduling expert

Download our Shift Scheduling White Paper

Download our free white paper titled “Shift Scheduling & Employee Involvement: The Key to Successful Schedules”

DOWNLOAD OUR WHITE PAPER

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About CIRCADIAN®

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations in the 24-hour economy optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of their extended hours operations.

REFERENCES

1. Circadian Technologies, Shiftwork Practices Survey 2002.

2. Ala-Mursula et al. Employee control over working times: associations with subjective health and sickness absences. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56(4),272-8. 2002.

3. Beltzhoover M. Self-scheduling: an innovative approach. Nurs. Manage. 25(4),81-2. 1994.

4. Bradley, Martin. Continuous personnel scheduling algorithms: a literature review. J. Soc. Health Syst. 2(2),8-23. 1991.

5. Holtom et al. The relationship between work status congruence and work-related attitudes and behaviors. J. Appl. Psychol. 87(5),903-15. 2002.

6. Moore-Ede M. The Twenty-Four Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World that Never Sleeps. 1994.

7. Smith PA et al. Change from slowly rotating 8-hour shifts to rapidly rotating 8-hour and 12-hour shifts using participative shift roster design. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 24(S3), 55-61. 1998.

8. Teahan. Implementation of a self-scheduling system: a solution to more than just schedules! J. Nurs. Manag. 6(6),361- 81. 998. Erratum in: J. Nurs. Manag. 7(1),65. 1999.

9. Sakai K et al. Educational and intervention strategies for improving a shift system: an experience in a disabled persons' facility. Ergonomics 36(1-3),219-25. 1993.

Friday, 19 December 2014 17:02

Top 10 Shift Work Myths

Myth #1 – Overtime within your workforce is evenly distributed

Best practices suggest that when overtime is equally distributed across a workforce, up to approximately 12% overtime is an acceptable rate. However, overtime rates vary across industries, companies and employees.

Research indicates that in many industries, 20% of employees work 60% or more of the overtime (Figure 4).1

Figure 4. Actual distribution of overtime at an extended hours facility.1Overtime distribution

Since accidents and safety problems can be caused by one fatigued employee, the risk of an accident occurring can rise as the distribution of overtime becomes increasingly skewed.

The imbalance exposes the pool of high overtime employees to extra health risks, and exposes the company to increased absenteeism costs, health care costs, safety issues, and legal liability.

Myth #2 – Employee productivity increases linearly

Studies and reports suggest that productivity can suffer with increased overtime hours.

Data from 18 manufacturing industries in the U.S. shows that for most of these industries, productivity (measured as output per hour) declines when overtime is used.2

On average, a 10% increase in overtime results in a 2.4% decrease in productivity (more output is achieved, but the number of hours worked increases as well—not as much output per hour is realized).

This performance decline is confirmed by the work of J. Nevison of Oak Associates. In his white paper, Nevison brings together scientific, business, and government data to demonstrate that little productive work takes place over and above 50 hours per week (Figure 2)3. Two other studies, also examined in the white paper, show that productive hours drop by an additional 10 hours when the number of consecutive long workweeks increases from four to 12, highlighting the cumulative effects that overtime can have on productivity.

Figure 2. Productive vs. actual work hours, from a collection of four studies4
overtime and productivity

Myth #3 – Adequate staffing means having enough employees to cover permanent positions

Often overlooked are the real drivers of overtime in 24/7 operations. In any given week, employees may not be available to fill their scheduled shifts because of multiple reasons including:

  • Vacation days
  • Floating holidays
  • Sickness related absenteeism
  • Non-sickness related absenteeism/personal days
  • Injury-related absenteeism
  • Training
  • Special work assignments (committees, team building, projects, etc.)
  • Jury duty, bereavement, FMLA, etc.
  • Turnover/delays in filling position with adequately trained employees

Many 24/7 operations do not realistically estimate or measure the full impact of these factors and hence run their shifts with fewer staff than needed, effectively increasing the relief coverage requirement (i.e. overtime) and impacting the time on duty and off duty of their personnel.

Furthermore, many companies do not monitor and analyze their historical payroll and human resources data so that they are unable to make even simple forecasts about scheduled and unscheduled absenteeism. Without this data, they are unable to accurately define seasonal, weekly and daily fluctuations in coverage demand.

Based on CIRCADIAN's 2014 Shiftwork Practices data, we found that the "leaner" operations (i.e. reduced staffing levels) reported higher absenteeism rates (Figure 1).

Interestingly, over 50% of all unscheduled absences are due to either: personal needs, stress, or an entitlement mentality (i.e. “I’ve earned it”).5

Figure 1. Staffing Levels & Absenteeism Rate 5absenteeism and staffing levels

Myth #4 – Operational decisions on shift scheduling are best if mandated by management.

Management-mandated work schedules often prevent an operation from reaching its full potential in terms of operational costs, productivity, efficiency, and safety.

Employee participation is just as important in the process of designing and implementing the new work schedule as the characteristics of the new work schedule itself.6-9

Surveys suggest that management-mandated work schedules can lead to:10

  • Increased absenteeism
  • Excessive overtime costs
  • Increased health problems and fatigue
  • Decreased morale
  • Increased turnover costs
  • Recruitment problems

Studies comparing methods of shift schedule selection have found that employee involvement in schedule redesign increases the benefits of schedule redesign considerably, as compared to management-mandated schedule changes. These benefits include:11-18

  • Increased worker satisfaction with schedule design
  • Decreased unscheduled absences from illness
  • Improved physical and psychological vigor
  • Decreased turnover and number of vacant positions
  • Increased organizational commitment
  • Improved employee and management relations

Myth #5 – If a shift schedule works well at our other plant, it will work for us here.

This is a common misconception in companies with multiple facility locations. A shift schedule that’s effective and well-liked at one facility can cause disagreements and tension among workers at a seemingly identical facility.

Shift schedules need to be based on the social, operational and physiological needs of the workforce and managers at each specific company site. Some factors to consider include:

  • Geographic location
  • The lifestyles of workers
  • Cultural differences
  • Worker demographics

These factors can greatly impact the popularity of different shift schedules among workers. For example, avoiding rush hour traffic is often important to workers in large cities, whereas workers in rural areas might prefer longer spans of days off.

Best shift scheduling practices suggest choosing a schedule with features that support the priorities of workers at each individual facility.

Pleasing everyone may be impossible, but having the majority of workers in favor of a new shift schedule will greatly increase the likelihood of a successful schedule change.

Myth #6 – Given the choice, workers always select the best schedule for them and the worst for the company.

Much conflict between management and shiftworkers is the result of misunderstanding and poor communication.

Management often feels that it is doing its part by “telling,” rather than both telling and listening to the needs of workers. Workers may feel that they’re providing valuable insight, but management only hears the complaints. As a result, management may feel that workers only care about themselves and making money.

While the occasional worker may try to game the system, most workers are truly concerned with the well-being of the company. After all, workers realize that any problem that the company faces will ultimately affect them. In light of this, most workers will choose a schedule that will satisfy the company while still fulfilling their individual needs.

The best way to ensure that workers understand the reasons for making any scheduling changes is by keeping them informed. This can be accomplished through company-wide meetings or events, as well as through regular emails or letters about the general state of the company.

Myth #7 – Falling asleep on the job is a matter of willpower

While curling up with a pillow and blanket at work is clearly deliberate, many fatigued individuals unknowingly experience microsleeps while working. A microsleep is a brief sleep episode that lasts up to 30 seconds, during which a person temporarily loses consciousness and external stimuli aren’t perceived.19

Individuals who experience microsleeps are often unaware that they briefly lost consciousness and will frequently deny that they fell asleep.20 When an individual arouses from a microsleep episode, it may feel like a brief lapse in attention or mind wandering.

Research suggests that even individual neurons can experience microsleeps, which means that your parts of the brain may be “offline” even if you’re seemingly awake.21

Microsleeps are most commonly associated with sleep deprivation and driving; however, microsleeps can also occur in the absence of sleep deprivation when completing monotonous, repetitive tasks.

Myth #8 – Napping during work is a lazy and unacceptable behavior

Before you write off napping as a leisurely activity that should be banned at work, you might want to consider the ways in which napping at your workplace can improve the alertness and productivity of workers.

Ten minute power naps provide immediate benefits upon awakening and boosts in performance that can last up to 4 hours!

Ten minute naps have been shown to: decrease fatigue, increase vigor, improve performance, improve communication, decrease blood pressure, improve reaction time, improve subject well-being, and increase alertness.

Longer naps that last 90 minutes (or longer) still offer many restorative benefits; however, they are not as efficient as power naps. Longer naps allow for memory consolidation and therefore have been shown to improve memory. Extended napping is frequently associated with profound sleep inertia, which can be crippling to productivity. In order to avoid the sleep inertia of long naps, it's advised to sleep a full 90 min sleep cycle in order to wake up at the lightest sleep stage.

Myth # 9 – Hours of service requirements are sufficient for mitigating employee fatigue

Most fatigue regulations start and end with hours of service policies. While this is a good starting place, it fails to address all of the factors that contribute to fatigue. To ensure the alertness of workers, a comprehensive fatigue risk management system (FRMS) needs to be in place.

CIRCADIAN® 5 Defenses FRMS Design

Fatigue risk management system

A fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a data-driven, risk-informed, safety performance-based program that reduces the risk of fatigue-related incidents in 24/7 operations. An FRMS will continually monitor and reduce fatigue risk.

Workforces that have implemented fatigue risk management systems experience fewer problems with absenteeism, turnover and excessive overtime. Employees in these workforces have greater morale, less stress, and are more productive workers.

Myth #10 – There’s very little financial ROI with fatigue risk management

To some, fatigue might seem like a minor concern, yet it costs companies millions of dollars each year in excess costs, accidents and errors.

Fatigued workers cost employers $136.4 billion annually in health-related lost productive time (absenteeism and presenteeism), almost 4x more than their non-fatigued counterparts.22

Fatigued workers exhibit up to 4x the worker’s compensation costs as compared to non-fatigued workers (Figure 3).24 A recent meta-analysis of 27 observational studies found that sleep problems increase the risk of workplace injuries by 62 percent.23

Figure 3. Fatigue Levels & Worker’s Compensation24

fatigue and worker compensation Addressing and mitigating fatigue within an operation can significantly decrease excess costs related to: absenteeism, turnover, accidents, and healthcare.

fatigue risk management system savings

 

Debunk Other Shift Work Myths

Explore the variety of CIRCADIAN white papers that cover an assortment of 24/7 workforce topics including:

  • Shift Scheduling
  • Staffing Levels
  • Fatigue Risk Management Systems
  • Shiftwork Lifestyle Training
  • And much more!

white papers

 






REFERENCES

  1. CIRCADIAN databases
  2. Shepard E, Clifton T. Are Long Hours Reducing Productivity in Manufacturing. International Journal of Manpower 2000; 7.
  3. Nevison, J. Overtime Hours: The Rule of Fifty
  4. Permission from Nevison, Oak Associates.
  5. CIRCADIAN. 2014 Shiftwork Practices.
  6. Hauburger. Implementation of self-scheduling in the poison center. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 39(3),175-7. 1997.
  7. Knauth P.The design of shift systems. Ergonomics 36(1-3),15-28. 1993.
  8. Knauth P. Changing schedules: shiftwork. Chronobiol. Int. 14(2),159-71. 1997.
  9. Kogi K, Di Martino VG. Trends in participatory process of changing shiftwork arrangements. Work & Stress 9 (2/3), 298-304. 1995.
  10. Circadian Technologies, Shiftwork Practices Survey 2002.
  11. Ala-Mursula et al. Employee control over working times: associations with subjective health and sickness absences. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56(4),272-8. 2002.
  12. Beltzhoover M. Self-scheduling: an innovative approach. Nurs. Manage. 25(4),81-2. 1994.
  13. Bradley, Martin. Continuous personnel scheduling algorithms: a literature review. J. Soc. Health Syst. 2(2),8-23. 1991.
  14. Holtom et al. The relationship between work status congruence and work-related attitudes and behaviors. J. Appl. Psychol. 87(5),903-15. 2002.
  15. Moore-Ede M. The Twenty-Four Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World that Never Sleeps. 1994.
  16. Smith PA et al. Change from slowly rotating 8-hour shifts to rapidly rotating 8-hour and 12-hour shifts using participative shift roster design. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 24(S3), 55-61. 1998.
  17. Teahan. Implementation of a self-scheduling system: a solution to more than just schedules! J. Nurs. Manag. 6(6),361- 81. 998. Erratum in: J. Nurs. Manag. 7(1),65. 1999.
  18. Sakai K et al. Educational and intervention strategies for improving a shift system: an experience in a disabled persons' facility. Ergonomics 36(1-3),219-25. 1993.
  19. International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual, http://www.esst.org/adds/ICSD.pdf, page 343.
  20. Higgins, Laura; Fette Bernie (in press). "Drowsy Driving" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  21. Vyazovskiy, V. V., Olcese, U., Hanlon, E. C., Nir, Y., Cirelli, C., & Tononi, G. (2011). Local sleep in awake rats. Nature, 472(7344), 443-447.
  22. Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Lorandeau, A. L., & Berger, J. (2007). Fatigue in the US workforce: prevalence and implications for lost productive work time. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(1), 1-10.
  23. Katrin Uehli, Amar J. Mehta, David Miedinger, Kerstin Hug, Christian Schindler, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Jörg D. Leuppi, et al. (2014). Sleep problems and work injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2013.01.004
  24. Aguirre, A. Shiftwork Practices Survey, 2005.

Operational decisions based on shift scheduling myths can often prevent an operation from reaching its full potential in terms of operational costs, productivity, efficiency and safety.

If your operation doesn’t involve employees in work schedule changes... it may be falling prey to these myths.

Employee participation is just as important in the process of designing and implementing the new work schedule as the characteristics of the new work schedule itself.1-4

Based on 2014 Shiftwork Practices data, employee-selected work schedules and management-mandated work schedules are the two most common methods for choosing shift schedules (Figure 1).5

Schedule selection methodology can influence the degree to which the new schedule is successful.

Figure 1. Schedule Selection Methodology Across Shiftwork Operations

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Costs of Management-Mandated Work Schedules

Surveys suggest that management-mandated work schedules can lead to:6

  • Increased absenteeism
  • Excessive overtime costs
  • Increased health problems and fatigue
  • Decreased morale
  • Increased turnover costs
  • Recruitment problems

51% of managers who mandated their work schedule reported “severe workforce fatigue,” compared to only 37% of managers in facilities where employees participated in work schedule design.6

Benefits of Employee-Chosen Work Schedules

Studies comparing methods of shift schedule selection have found that employee involvement in schedule redesign increases the benefits of schedule redesign considerably, as compared to management-mandated schedule changes.

These benefits include:7-14

1. Increased worker satisfaction with schedule design

2. Decreased unscheduled absences from illness

3. Maintained teamwork among employees as well as in-role and extra-role performance on individual levels

4. Improved physical and psychological vigor

5. Improved daytime sleep quality

6. Improved quality of employees’ home and social lives

7. Decreased turnover and number of vacant positions

8. Increased organizational commitment

9. Improved employee understanding of administrative issues involved in management of the facility

10. Reduced employee complaints

Shift Schedule Selection Tips

Employee involvement in the scheduling selection process can be critical in building strong employee-level support which in turn increases productivity and helps the company bottom line.

Each employee affected by the schedule should be equally involved in its design. Although each employee will bring his or her own preferences into the process, workforce surveys can determine the significant preferences of the facility as a whole.15

The concept of trying to “please all of the people all of the time” should be openly discussed at frequent intervals in the schedule change process, with the aim to reach a compromise that satisfies the group as a whole.

Download Our Free White Paper


Shift Scheduling & Employee Involvement

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About CIRCADIAN®

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock. Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations in the 24-hour economy optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of their extended hours operations.


REFERENCES

1.Hauburger. Implementation of self-scheduling in the poison center. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 39(3),175-7. 1997.

2.Knauth P.The design of shift systems. Ergonomics 36(1-3),15-28. 1993.

3.Knauth P. Changing schedules: shiftwork. Chronobiol. Int. 14(2),159-71. 1997.

4.Kogi K, Di Martino VG. Trends in participatory process of changing shiftwork arrangements. Work & Stress 9 (2/3), 298-304. 1995.

5.CIRCADIAN, Shiftwork Practices 2014

6.Circadian Technologies, Shiftwork Practices Survey 2002.

7. Ala-Mursula et al. Employee control over working times: associations with subjective health and sickness absences. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56(4),272-8. 2002.

8.Beltzhoover M. Self-scheduling: an innovative approach. Nurs. Manage. 25(4),81-2. 1994.

9.Bradley, Martin. Continuous personnel scheduling algorithms: a literature review. J. Soc. Health Syst. 2(2),8-23. 1991.

10.Holtom et al. The relationship between work status congruence and work-related attitudes and behaviors. J. Appl. Psychol. 87(5),903-15. 2002.

11.Moore-Ede M. The Twenty-Four Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World that Never Sleeps. 1994.

12.Smith PA et al. Change from slowly rotating 8-hour shifts to rapidly rotating 8-hour and 12-hour shifts using participative shift roster design. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 24(S3), 55-61. 1998.

13.Teahan. Implementation of a self-scheduling system: a solution to more than just schedules! J. Nurs. Manag. 6(6),361- 81. 998. Erratum in: J. Nurs. Manag. 7(1),65. 1999.

14.Sakai K et al. Educational and intervention strategies for improving a shift system: an experience in a disabled persons' facility. Ergonomics 36(1-3),219-25. 1993.

15.Gray et al. Preferences for specific work schedules: foundation for an expert-system scheduling program. Comput. Nurs. 11(3),115-21. 1993.

Shift Schedule Selection - Shift Work We have come across our fair share of shift work myths, especially those involving shift schedule selection, throughout CIRCADIAN’s 30 years of consulting a variety of 24/7 industries and operations.

They may seem logical, but these myths can prevent an operation from reaching its full potential in terms of operational costs, productivity, efficiency and safety.

Explaining the facts behind these myths provides managers with the accurate information necessary to develop effective solutions for schedule-related problems.

MYTH #1: If a shift schedule works well at our other plant, it will work for us here.

The Truth:

This is a common misconception in companies with multiple facility locations. A shift schedule that’s effective and well-liked at one facility can cause disagreements and tension among workers at a seemingly identical facility.

Shift schedules need to be based on the social, operational and physiological needs of the workforce & managers at each specific company site. Some factors to consider include:

  • Geographic location
  • The lifestyles of workers
  • Cultural differences
  • Worker demographics

These factors can greatly impact the popularity of different shift schedules among workers. For example, avoiding rush hour traffic is often important to workers in large cities, whereas workers in rural areas might prefer longer spans of days off.

Best shift scheduling practices suggest choosing a schedule with features that support the priorities of workers at each individual facility.

Pleasing everyone may be impossible, but having the majority of workers in favor of a new shift schedule will greatly increase the likelihood of a successful schedule change.

MYTH #2: There is a “perfect” shift schedule that will meet the needs of everybody in the plant.

The Truth:

As the old saying goes – you can’t please everyone. Even in the best situations, you can’t expect a shift schedule to meet the needs of everyone in a company.

After proper evaluations, interviews and surveys, a shift schedule can be developed and implemented to meet a majority of workers’ needs as well as the operational goals set by management.

Similarly, a schedule that will work well in one department may not work in another department. The type of work being done in each area of the plant needs to be taken into consideration when developing a new schedule. If the work load includes control room monitoring operations as well as departments with physically demanding work, more than one schedule may be necessary.

Designing more than one schedule for a plant creates its own difficulties – like coordinating multiple schedules. It’s important to integrate schedules to allow for proper communication and coordination between departments.

MYTH #3: Changing shift schedules is as easy as choosing the “best” one and implementing it at the facility.

The Truth:

Whether driven by management requirements or worker frustration, changing and implementing a new schedule is usually an emotionally-charged process.

If done improperly, or without a cooperative effort between workers and management, schedule changes can create a volatile situation with cost implications.

There are economic repercussions, operational criteria and worker relationships that must be taken into consideration. It’s critical to have buy-in from both management and workers on why a change is necessary, if one is needed at all.

Attempting the “hit or miss” method of choosing a schedule can be equally disastrous. Like anybody, shift workers desire stability and regularity. Implementing a new schedule every year can damage the trust, morale and support of workers.

MYTH #4: There isn’t a schedule that can make workers happy without compromising operational needs.

The Truth:

No schedule can meet all the needs of every single worker and every conceivable management goal; however, schedules can be developed to satisfy most corporate requirements.

For example, take the requirement that the company operate on a continuous 168 hours-per-week schedule. It’s important to address the needs of the worker as a function of that requirement before implementing a schedule to fulfill the requirements of a continuous operation.

Most workers understand the need to operate 168 hours-per-week and as a result, workers look for a schedule that maximizes the weekend days off and quality time off per year. When these needs are met as much as possible, workers become fully satisfied with the added benefit to the company.

MYTH #5

Given the choice, workers always select the best schedule for them and the worst for the company.

The Truth:

Much conflict between management and shiftworkers is the result of misunderstanding and poor communication.

Management often feels that it is doing its part by “telling,” rather than both telling and listening to the needs of workers. Workers may feel that they’re providing valuable insight, but management only hears the complaints. As a result, management may feel that workers only care about themselves and making money.

While the occasional worker may try to game the system, most workers are truly concerned with the well-being of the company. After all, workers realize that any problems that the company faces will ultimately affect them. In light of this, most workers will choose a schedule that will satisfy the company while still fulfilling their individual needs.

The best way to ensure that workers understand the reasons for making any scheduling changes is by keeping them informed. This can be accomplished through company-wide meetings or events, as well as through regular emails or letters about the general state of the company.

The Big Truth

What do all of these myths have in common? Communication between management and workers facilitates successful schedule changes. Management needs to hear and listen to the workers’ perspective and visa-versa. By effectively communicating and working together on the challenges of implementing a new schedule, management and workers can decide upon a shift schedule that addresses both parties’ needs.

Want to learn more?

At CIRCADIAN® we strive to be a valuable resource to members of the 24/7 workforce community. We suggest reading the following informative white papers that detail strategies for overcoming key issues that challenge 24/7 workforces.

Biocompatible Shift Scheduling White Paper Shift Scheduling and Employee Involvement Alternative Work Schedules White Paper

 

CIRCADIAN® Shift Scheduling Solutions

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance, shifting scheduling and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations in 24/7 workforces optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of their extended hours operations.

Tuesday, 09 September 2014 14:54

6 Signs of a Needed Shift Schedule Redesign

“We’ve always done it this way, so why should we change?”

24/7 operations managers are often aware that a poorly designed schedule can cause serious problems for their workers. However, many companies stick with their current shift schedules out of comfort and familiarity.

Best practices suggest periodically reviewing shift schedules to determine if they still best serve your employees, operations and most importantly – your bottom line.

Over 300 shift schedule variations have been implemented in 24/7 operations, each with varying degrees of success; however, there are thousands of mathematical scheduling possibilities – many of which are based on 8-hour, 12-hour and combined 8- and 12-hour shifts.

Two Problematic Schedules

  1. Shifts that rotate counter-clockwise

    Counter-clockwise (also known as anti-clockwise) shift rotations — working nights, then evenings, then days — fight the human body’s innate circadian rhythm (i.e. our 24-hour internal clock) which naturally drifts forward to later hours each day.

    On a counter-clockwise rotation, adjusting to the night shift is challenging and often results in reduced alertness and performance – known as “industrial jet lag”, since the sensation mimics the feeling of constantly crossing time zones from west to east.
  2. 3 crew, 8-hour shifts for 7-day operations

Having three crews cover seven days of work — a schedule common at plants that have converted from 5-day to 7-day operations — can cause fatigue-related problems. On these schedules, employees frequently work overtime and struggle to develop normal sleep habits.  

The result? Employees become increasingly fatigued and prone to human error, often leading to costly accidents, injuries and poor-quality production.

Weekend warrior crews – while less fatigued – typically cost more, have unacceptably high turnover rates and lowered productivity due to lack of skills and experience.

Signs of Trouble

 How do you know if your scheduling system is a lemon? Some of the most obvious signs include:

  1. Workers show up late for work, arrive at work tired, or fall asleep on the job
  2. Increase in accident rates occurring on overnight shifts, especially with rotating crews
  3. A significant change in the proportion of younger vs. older employees
  4. High absenteeism or rising health care costs

Investigating a New Shift Schedule?

 One key to a successful shift change – make sure to involve employees when making any new scheduling decisions!

CIRCADIAN data shows that facilities with mandated schedules on average have the highest absenteeism and turnover rates and the poorest employee morale across all schedule selection methods.

Similarly, task team and benchmarking approaches often fail to achieve consensus and frequently overlook critical – and potentially costly – issues that arise from implementing the schedule change.

The Perfect Schedule?

Changing schedules isn’t simply a matter of researching some alternatives and putting them to a vote. Here’s the reality – a schedule change is a complex and volatile issue that can easily become disputed and counterproductive if not developed and implemented properly.

Many companies look for a perfect schedule, but it doesn’t exist. In fact, the best schedule for any workforce is a site-specific phenomenon – derived from management, employee and biomedical criteria.

Win-Win Scheduling

Instead of risking more arbitrary approaches, hundreds of 24/7 operations have turned to CIRCADIAN for assistance.

By working together with employees, unions, and management, CIRCADIAN develops shift schedule plans that meet the business needs, satisfy worker preferences, and are compatible with human physiology to promote health and safety.

The result is a healthier, happier and more productive workforce.

About CIRCADIAN

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations with traditional and/or extended operating hours optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of sleep deprivation and fatigue.


The process of changing schedules can be daunting, especially for the workers; however, there are a number of processes that can be implement to ease the transitioned.

Based on interviews with shift work experts and 24-hour managers, CIRCADIAN suggests these 9 tips to help your workers manage a shift schedule transition.

1. Don’t over rely on overtime

Excessive overtime can be the downfall of an otherwise successful scheduling change. Avoid extending scheduled shifts and ensure that workers experience the primary benefit of 12s — increased days off.

To avoid overtime-related fatigue problems, here are a few guidelines to follow:

  • Prohibit overtime on scheduled work days, except in emergencies.
  • Even in emergencies, limit shifts to 14 hours unless the worker has the next day off — especially with shifts that include overnight hours.
  • Don’t call in workers on their days off more than two or three times per month.
  • Monitor overtime by individual so you can identify workers who are accruing excessive overtime.

Following these guidelines can help your company avoid being at risk for fatigue-related accidents and potentially reduce employee burnout and turnover rates.

2. Permit multiple short breaks

To maintain fairness for workers, along with avoiding fatigue and vigilance problems, the work-to-break ratio should remain the same after a schedule change.

Allowing additional short breaks – even as many as 4-5 breaks per shift – can be helpful in the transition from 8- to 12-hour shifts. Frequent, 10-15 minute breaks allow workers time for revitalizing activities (a short walk, a snack or a call home) that reduce feelings of monotony.

3. Cross train

Effective cross training can increase job satisfaction (reducing turnover in the long run) and make the physical and mental challenges of 12 hour shifts more manageable.

In physically demanding jobs, workers who use the same muscles for the entire shift are at risk for repetitive stress injuries. In less intense job positions, monotony can set the stage for boredom and an increase in fatigue-related incidents.

To avoid these risks, workers should be trained to responsibly to handle numerous tasks.

4. Focus on communication

There is a potential for communication breakdowns to occur when scheduling 12-hour shifts. Breakdowns in communication most frequently occur with schedules that provide workers with 6- or 7-day breaks within a given shift cycle.

To avoid this issue, consider developing a short debriefing process for workers that lights any changes that occurred while they were gone.

Have workers come to work 15 minutes following several days off. Another solution is to establish a message board for important updates or to use a computer messaging system.

5. Require managers to work 12s

Managers should regularly experience working a 12 hour shift schedule; however, it’s impractical to expect all managers to work the same 12-hour schedule as employees.

Requiring managers to work at least some 12s opens the lines of communication between management and workers; it also improves worker morale by demonstrating that management takes a genuine concern in the realities of their jobs.

One reasonable approach is to require daytime managers to work two 12-hour shifts per month, possibly in exchange for one 8-hour day off.

6. Establish an internal review team

An internal review team can service as an everyday liaison to other workers and meet formally every three months to identify trends.

To identify areas for improvement, create a team comprised of workers, with at least one representative from each job function. The team can pass on any insights to a senior-level management.

While there may be general satisfaction with a 12-hour schedule, there is always room for improvement.

7. Hold team-building social functions

Team building social functions boost team spirit among crews, and 12s make it easier to for workers to get together outside of work.

On any given day, half of your shift workers have the whole day off (whereas with 8s, three-quarters of your workforce is either on the job or working later that day).

Capitalize on this benefit by holding occasional morale-boosting events, such as dinners or softball games.

8. Encourage exercise

Workers who exercise frequently have improved morale, alertness, mood, health and sleep at home (provided the exercise isn’t too close to bedtime). Allowing for the opportunity to exercise at work is often incredibly well-received by workers.

Some companies allow people to exercise while they work, putting treadmills, rowing machines or stationary bikes in control rooms. If this isn’t feasible at your facility, consider furnishing a break room with exercise equipment, light weights, and a TV with aerobics DVDs, etc.

9. Seek out shiftwork-friendly products

Make 12-hour shifts easier for workers by installing shiftwork-friendly products designed to minimize fatigue and stress, such as: ergonomically-correct chairs, high-top stools for standing workers, computer screens that relieve eyestrain, and “anti-fatigue” floor mats.

Choose durable products, as they are used 24 hours a day. With office furniture, find products that reduce discomfort and backaches, yet aren’t so comfortable that they set the stage for falling asleep.

Want to learn more about 12-hour shifts?

Download our free white paper "Advantages & Disadvantages of 12-Hour Schedules: A Balanced Perspective"

12 hour shift schedules white paper download white paper About CIRCADIAN

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations with traditional and/or extended operating hours optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of sleep deprivation and fatigue.

 

Thursday, 07 August 2014 21:12

Overtime and the U.S. Work Week

Employees in the U.S. work the highest number of work hours per year compared to the rest of the world—about 70 more hours per year than workers in Japan, and 350 hours more than in Europe. Longer workweeks and fewer weeks of vacation in the U.S. combine to produce this discrepancy.

America is one of the few industrialized nations that does not mandate a minimum number of paid vacation days per year. No U.S. federal laws limit the number of hours that people can work or can be asked to work, except in a few select safety sensitive occupations (e.g. the transportation industry). This, combined with the lack of mandated vacation time, contributes to the high annual work hours of the average U.S. employee.

Average Hours of Work per Week

The traditional workweek in an office or other discrete operation in the U.S. is generally considered to be 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday to Friday—40 hours of work. However, 40 hours per week did not become the standard until the early 1930s with the introduction of the National Industrial Recovery Act, the forebear of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA).

In 2013, the Bureau of Labor & Statistics reported that the average hours of work per week in nonagricultural industries is 38.5 hours, with full time workers averaging 42.5 hour workweeks. Figure 1 shows the average hours worked each week by employees as broken down by industry.

Figure 1. Hours Worked Per Week Based on Industry

 

BLS Average Work HoursOvertime & Employees

Naturally, overtime is most applicable to employees who earn wages based on an hourly rate. Though the standard workweek as defined by the Fair Labor Standards Act is 40 hours of work, many hourly employees work in “extended hours” facilities that require at least some level of overtime from employees in order to run operations continuously.

The definition of overtime is not limited to hourly employees who, in the U.S., must be paid a premium for hours worked over 40 in a week. The definition also applies to salaried employees who are not required to receive extra compensation for the length of time they spend at work. These salaried workers are just as likely to work overtime, and are equally susceptible to the issues relating to overtime.

Scheduled vs Actual Hours Worked

Many managers attempt to reduce overtime as much as possible; however, unforeseen absenteeism often causes increases in overtime among shift workers. According to the Shift Work Practices 2014 report, which represents data from 341 industrial shift work operations, shift workers on average are scheduled for one hour of overtime per week; however, each shift worker tends to work five extra hours of overtime per week. Figure 2 graphically depicts the weekly scheduled versus actual number of hours work on average per shift worker.

Figure 2: Weekly Scheduled vs Actual Hours Worked per Shift Worker

 SWP 2014 - Weekly Work Hours Per Shift Worker

The discrepancy between scheduled vs actual hours worked is not surprising, especially among understaffed workforces. Operations that had ‘just enough’ or ‘not enough’ workers covering permanent positions had significantly higher absenteeism rates which results in unwanted increases in overtime for the rest of the workforce (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Absenteeism Rates of Operations based on Staffing Levels
Staffing Levels and Employee AbsenteeismDistribution of Overtime

If overtime is equally distributed across employees, up to approximately 12 percent overtime is an acceptable overtime rate for a workforce, based on Circadian’s research. Overtime varies not only by industry and company, but also by employee. For instance, our research indicates that, in many industries, 20 percent of the employees work 60 percent or more of the overtime (Figure 4).

As accidents and safety problems can be caused by one fatigued employee, the risk can increase as the distribution of overtime becomes more skewed. The imbalance exposes the pool of high overtime employees to extra health risks, and exposes the company to increased health care costs, absenteeism costs, safety issues, and legal liability.

Figure 4. Actual distribution of overtime at an extended hours facility.

  distribution of overtime at an extended hours facility.

Want to learn more about how to reduce overtime?

Interested in learning more about overtime levels across industries? Want to determine if your operation is functioning at an efficient staffing level?

Visit CIRCADIAN.com to learn more about reducing overtime, proportional staffing, and shift schedule optimization. Also, make sure to download a complimentary white paper from CIRCADIAN that focuses on optimal staffing levels.

About CIRCADIAN

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations with traditional and/or extended operating hours optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of sleep deprivation and fatigue.

The use of mandatory overtime often causes contention, but there are no federal rulings that prohibit its use, nor do laws prevent an employer from firing a person who refuses to work mandatory overtime. However, several states have outlawed mandatory overtime in health care professions.

How do shift work operations assign overtime?

Data from 341 North American shift work operations shows that:

  • 73% first asked for volunteers, and then used mandatory overtime if needed because of lack of volunteers.
  • 20% of facilities reported relying exclusively on voluntary overtime
  • 7% reported relying exclusively on mandatory overtime. 

Many workers, both salaried and hourly, who feel the pressure to deliver results or impress management end up working overtime voluntarily. Though this overtime is voluntary, it can often take a large toll on workers if it becomes a chronic work pattern, resulting in many of the same issues associate with mandated overtime.

A study at Cornell University revealed that employees who experience high levels of supervisory pressure to work overtime are 66% more likely to experience depression than those who have moderate to low supervisory pressure. In combination with the higher depression comes higher levels of stress, job-escape drinking problems, absenteeism, and multiple occurrences of injuries at work (only 9% of employees with no supervisory pressure to work overtime reported multiple occurrences of injuries, compared to 16% with high supervisory pressure).

Learn More about Overtime

Want to learn more about overtime? Interested in the ways in which overtime may be impacting your workers? Visit CIRCADIAN to download a free white paper that details optimal staffing levels in 24/7 operations.

About CIRCADIAN

CIRCADIAN® is the global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.  Through a unique combination of consulting expertise, research and technology, software tools and informative publications, CIRCADIAN helps organizations with traditional and/or extended operating hours optimize employee performance and reduce the inherent risks and costs of sleep deprivation and fatigue.



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